Individual Study / POPS

POPS - Project On Preterm and Small for gestational age infants


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The original POPS-cohort is a multi-center cohort of 1338 very preterm (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants, 94% of all eligible infants who were live-born in the Netherlands in 1983. During the first two years of life, the POPS-cohort was seen four times at the hospital of discharge. Additional follow-up was done at the ages of 5, 9, 10–11, 14 and 19 years. The participation rate among the survivors decreased from 96% at 5 years of age to 74% at 19 years of age, when 11% participated by completing postal questionnaires. Non-responders tended to be more severely handicapped, were more often male, were of non-Dutch origin, and had a lower socio-economic status. Therefore, we applied multiple imputation data analysis to adjust for missing values at age 19 and this slightly increased the percentage of abnormal outcomes in all areas.

During the first two years of life, the health assessments and questionnaires were done by their own pediatricians. At the age of five, the children were assessed by three specially trained pediatricians. The assessments at 9, 10–11, 14 and 19 years of age consisted of questionnaires completed by their parents. At 14 and 19 years of age the young adults were also asked to complete questionnaires. The assessment at 19 years of age included a physical examination in one of the participating hospitals or academic centers. Additionally, at 28 years of age, 300 POPS participants completed 3 online questionnaires sent to their last known email addresses. The medical ethics committee of the Leiden University Medical Center approved the study protocols.

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Investigators Contacts
  • Sylvia van der Pal
    TNO
  • Sylvia van der Pal
    TNO

Overview

Acronym
POPS
Start Year
1983
Follow Up Is Ongoing
Year of Most Recent Data Collection
2018
New Data Collection planned?
Yes

Access

Access to external researchers or third parties provided or foreseen.

Data (questionnaire-derived, measured...)
Biosamples
Other access

Study Design

Study design
Cohort
Number of Data Collection Events
11
Number of very preterm (VPT) and/or very low birthweight (VLBW) births included in cohort (live & still births)
1338

Marker Paper

Van der Pal-de Bruin KM, van der Pal SM, Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Walther FJ. Profiling the preterm or VLBW born adolescent; implications of the Dutch POPS cohort follow-up studies. Early Hum Dev. 2015;91(2):97-102.

Others:
1. Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Verwey RA, Brand R, Bennebroek Gravenhorst J, Keirse MJNC, Ruys JH. Neonatal mortality in relation to gestational age and birth weight. Results of a national survey of preterm and very-low-birth weight infants in the Netherlands. Lancet 1986;55–57.
2. Hille ET, Weisglas-Kuperus N, van Goudoever JB, Jacobusse GW, Ens-Dokkum MH, de Groot L, et al. Functional outcomes and participation in young adulthood for very preterm and very low birth weight infants: the Dutch project on preterm and small for gestational age infants at 19 years of age. Pediatrics 2007;120(3):e587–95.
3. Hille ETM, Elbertse MD, Bennebroek Gravenhorst J, Brand R, Verloove-Vanhorick SP. Nonresponse bias in a follow-up study of 19-year-old adolescents born as preterm infants. Pediatrics 2005;116(5):662–6.
4. Hille ETM, den Ouden AL, Stuifbergen MC, Verrips GHW, Vogels AGC, Brand R, et al. Is attribution bias a problem in neonatal follow-up? Early HumDev 2005;81:901–8.
5. van Buuren S. Flexible imputation of missing data. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press; 2012.
6. Rubin DB. Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: JohnWiley & sons; 1987.
7. Van Lunenburg A, van der Pal SM, van Dommelen P, van der Pal-de Bruin KM, Bennebroek Gravenhorst J, Verrips GH. Changes in quality of life into adulthood after very preterm birth and/or very low birth weight in the Netherlands. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013:26;11:51.
8. Van Gendt AW, van der Pal SM, Hermes W, Walther FJ, van der Pal-de Bruin KM, de Groot CJ. Reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm and/or with a very low birth weight in 1983: a longitudinal cohort study in the Netherlands. Eur J Pediatr. 2015;174(6):819-25.

PUBMED 25590235

Timeline

Population

Population based and nation-wide, see description: 94% of all eligible infants who were live-born in the Netherlands in 1983 (Van der Pal-de Bruin KM, van der Pal SM, Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Walther FJ. Profiling the preterm or VLBW born adolescent; implications of the Dutch POPS cohort follow-up studies. Early Hum Dev. 2015;91(2):97-102.).
Selection Criteria
Countries
  • Netherlands
Geographical Area
All of the Netherlands
VPT/VLBW Group Inclusion Criteria
Very preterm (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants.
Control Group Inclusion Criteria
n/a
VPT/VLBW Group Exclusion Criteria
none
Control Group Exclusion Criteria
n/a
Data Collection Events
# Name Description Start End
0 Perinatal Assessment Perinatal data was collected prospectively by pediatricians using a standardised form. Data were collected on maternal sociodemograhic characteristics, maternal obstetric and medical history, ... 1983 1983
1 Discharge to 1 Year Follow Up At 3 months of corrected age, data were collected by a neonatologist/padiatrician on infant length, weight and head circumference, diseases, visits to health professionals and hospital admission, ... 1983 1984
2 2 Year Follow Up At 24 months of corrected age, data were collected by a neonatologist/pediatrician on infant length, weight and head circumference, diseases, visits to health professionals and hospital admission ... 1985 1985
3 5 Year Follow Up At 5 years of age, parents completed a questionnaire on respiratory problems, health problems, congenital anomalies, medication, otological problems, development, child behavior, emotional ... 1988 1988
4 9 Year Follow Up At 9 years of age, parents of the participants completed a school-related questionnaire on living arrangements, type of school attended and special educational support received, academic ... 1992 1992
5 10 Year Follow Up At 10 years of age, the parents of the participant completed a questionnaire to collect details of height and weight, vision and hearing problems, mobility and dexterity, disability and visits to ... 1993 1993
6 11 Year Follow Up Participants underwent a neurological examination according to Touwen 1979, and completed the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R).

Parents of participants also ...
1994 1994
7 14 Year Follow Up At 14 years of age the parents of the participants completed the Health Utilities Index (HUI), London Handicap Scale (LHS), TNO AZL Children's Quality Of Life (TACQOL) and questionnaires on family ... 1997 1997
8 19 Year Follow Up At 19 years of age, participants underwent a full clinical assessment including collection of blood and urine samples, blood pressure measurements, skin thickness measurements (triceps, biceps, ... 2002 2003
9 28 Year Follow Up At 28 years of age, participants completed an online questionnaire at three time points consisting of the Health Utilities Index (HUI), London Handicap Scale (LHS), World Health Organisation ... 2011 2011
10 35 Year Follow Up This data collection is ongoing. Participants completed a short online questionnaire. 2018